Mines and post-mining excavations, underground constructions

The Liberec Underground – Water Mains Network

The oldest water engineering systems in Liberec and its surroundings are mill races which powered mills, iron mills and other works. In a European context, the water main is the first major engineering water system that has been continuously expanded and modernized from its very inception...

The Lignite Mine Turów

It is said, that at the present location of the mine the “earth fire” was started by a lightning and lasted for two years from 1642 to 1643. Nowadays, it is known that it was a fire of the lignite deposits. At the beginning the lignite was used as a fertilizer. No sooner than in the middle of the XIX century it was used to light up the stoves. In 1917 on both banks of the Nysa river the “Hirschfelde” complex was built. It consisted of a mine, a power plant and a briquette factory. After the World War II a new border was set between Poland and Germany on the Odra and the Nysa Łużycka rivers.

The Mill Races

Water systems which take water to water wheels and other devices can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of works built in urban areas and the second is rural mill races. Until the 19th century neither group differed significantly either in construction or technology used. Urban water systems are infrastructures which in large part pass through built up areas, whereas in rural systems such infrastructures lead through open countryside...